Generally Frequently Asked Questions

About Helios Repository

Frequently Asked Questions about Copyright

Generally Frequently Asked Questions

What is self-archiving? top

It is a simple process, through which the author/creator him/herself deposits his/her digital document (e.g. article, book, etc.) in the repository after his/her registration to the Repository. Depositing involves a simple web interface where the depositor copy/pastes or fills in the "metadata" (date, author-name, title, journal-name, etc.) and then attaches the full-text document. Self-archiving does not aim to deter collaborations with publishing houses, but on the contrary, it reinforces relevant activities by acting supplementary.

What are the benefits to the researcher? top

  • The repository benefits everyone by providing free online access to scientific information.
  • By depositing research results in a repository, research results are available faster than by publishing them in a journal article.
  • Reaching e wider readership as scientific publications available through the internet are read more often than printed publications.
  • Scientific publications in repositories are found with high 'relevance ranking' in search engines such as Google Scholar, Yahoo! and Scirus.
  • Worldwide visibility and long term accessibility increases the chances that your work will be quoted.
  • The repository facilitates long term preservation of digital documents and guarantees that your full text publication remains accessible on a long term basis.
  • The repository offers a range of services which are based on the contents in the repository, such as the generation of dynamic publication lists for your personal home page or the institutional home page.
  • By depositing your publications in a repository, you will save time when it comes to administrative tasks, such as maintaining publication lists and the dissemination of your publications.
  • The repository archives the documents and assigns enduring links to your full text publications.
  • Scientific communication will be improved by increasing the accessibility of scientific information.

What are the benefits for the organization? top

At an institutional level the benefits of repositories overlap somewhat those to individuals. Repositories can:

  • Showcase the organisation's research footprint
  • Increase the visibility of the research output of the organisation.
  • Increase the scientific indicators of the Organization's work.
  • Promotes the Organization's intellectual capital.
  • Enables organisation to publish its own scientific research and to make it available to all of its researchers.
  • Demonstrate the scientific, social and economic relevance of the organisation's research activities.
  • Makes electronic publishing easier and makes room for innovations in scientific communication.
  • Facilitates digital storage and long term preservation of the Organization's research output.


  • The quality of the organisation's research output is an effective way of promotion for the organisation.
  • Without an (increasingly expensive) subscription on a scientific journal, you can have access to what has been researched and written.

What does digital preservation mean? top

Digital preservation is the management of digital information over time. Preservation of digital information is widely considered to require more constant and ongoing attention than preservation of other media. This constant input of effort, time, and money to handle rapid technological and organizational advance is considered the main stumbling block for preserving digital information. Indeed, while we are still able to read our written heritage from several thousand years ago, the digital information created merely a decade ago is in serious danger of being lost, creating a digital Dark Age. Digital preservation can therefore be seen as the set of processes and activities that ensure continued access to information and all kinds of records, scientific and cultural heritage existing in digital formats. This includes the preservation of materials resulting from digital reformatting, but particularly information that is born-digital and has no analog counterpart. In the language of digital imaging and electronic resources, preservation is no longer just the product of a program but an ongoing process. In this regard the way digital information is stored is important in ensuring their longevity. The long-term storage of digital information is assisted by the inclusion of preservation metadata.

Does the establishment of a repository require a heavy additional workload for the researchers? top

No, it does not. Posting of documents can be done through two ways in order to cover the needs of all the users: a) through self-archiving, a brief process during which the researcher deposits the document following predefined steps of the system and, b) through the mediated deposit service, where the repository support group undertakes the posting of the document on behalf of the researcher.

Do Institutional Repositories undetermined the existing publishing system? top

Institutional repositories will not and cannot, by themselves, eliminate the roles currently served by scholarly publishers, nor should they aspire to do so. On the contrary they augment, rather than displace, the existing system of scholarly journals in providing important new measures of academic performance and in ensuring greater leverage of a particular institution's intellectual capital.

What adds quality to a repository? top

Some of the main elements contributing to the quality of a repository are the compatibility to international standards and specifications, the effective management of documents and the development of added value services. Other quality parameters are the choice of the software platform and it's customization and the long-term preservation of digital content.

May the posting of a research in the repository have any impact on publication in a traditional peer-reviewed journal? top

In many disciplines, informal methods of pre-publication communication-including preprints, conference presentation, poster sessions, published abstracts-have long been recognized as important and legitimate components of scholarly communication and not considered formal publication. Hence, such dissemination typically did not preclude subsequent formal publication in a peer-reviewed journal. Indeed, one can argue that-from a scholarly communication perspective-posting a research communication to a personal web page or to an institutional repository differs little from presenting the same material at a conference: both allow for comment and revision prior to formal, definitive publication. During the last years there is increasing recognition, at least in the sciences, that scholarly publishing represents such a continuum, and the previous resistance of many journal publishers to prior electronic publication is changing. A significant number of scientific journal publishers have adopted the position that posting on e-print servers or institutional repositories does not in itself constitute prior publication, but rather provides a legitimate channel of scholarly communication. Many journals in natural and applied sciences which, given the prevalence of e-prints posting among their authors, had to acquiesce in the practice of online posting-seem to have lost none of their prestige or financial strength as a result. The reason appears to be that authors and readers in those disciplines perceive a qualitative difference between informal and formal publication.

What about version-control? Will there be one version in a repository and a different published version? top

Most deposited versions are the author's final version - the version after peer-review, after revision and checking - that is finally sent to the publisher for printing. Some publishers allow the use of the final PDF file which contains their layout and style of font - in which case the versions are identical. Otherwise, while the style of the font might be different, the text of the repository version is identical except for whatever minor copy-editing is done by the publisher after it leaves the author's hands.

What are preprints? top

A preprint is a pre-refereed and unpublished version of a paper before peer review process, which is usually submitted for publication.

What are post-prints? top

A postprint is the final peer-reviewed version of a paper which incorporates any changes or corrections necessary to ensure publication. This means that in terms of content, post-prints are the article as published. However, in terms of appearance this might not be the same as the published article, as publishers often reserve for themselves their own arrangement of type-setting and formatting. Typically, this means that the author cannot use the publisher-generated .pdf file, but must make their own .pdf version for submission to a repository. Having said that, some publishers insist that authors use the publisher-generated .pdf - seemingly because the publishers want their material to be seen as a professionally produced .pdf that fits with their own house-style.
An eprint is the umbrella term for an electronic copy of a paper which can include both pre and postprints.

What is published version? top

It concerns the final format of the paper as created and published in the final publication by the publisher.

What are metadata and why are they considered important? top

Metadata is cataloguing information: title, author/creators, citation information, subject keywords, etc. They are used for providing information about each item that can then be made available for searching, external harvesting and also providing information about that item and its associated files (bitstreams). Metadata is often described as 'data about data'. It is used to facilitate the understanding, use and management of data, i.e. it helps librarians and archivists organise where an item is placed and it helps users find it! It is critical to create a metadata record for every submission. Metadata constitute a standardized description scheme de facto or de jure standard.

What does Open Access mean? top

Open Access (OA) is an international movement to enable the worldwide electronic dissemination of output of funded research in a completely free and unrestricted manner. It provides free, immediate, permanent, full-text, online access to digital, scientific and scholarly material for any user across the web. The aim of open access is to facilitate the exchange of scientific information. Thus, the research results can become accessible to everybody.
It can be in form of peer-reviewed journal articles and conference papers as well as technical reports, theses and working papers but also research data and multimedia files or in fact any other format as long as it is being understood as valuable to share freely for research, scientific and other purposes. This is made possible by the internet and the consent of the author / creator or copyright-holder.
There are two main models in providing open access: 1. Open Access archives or repositories (also known as the 'green road' to OA), Open Access scientific journals (also known as the 'golden road' to OA).
For more information, references and useful links please visit the official website: http://www.openaccess.gr.

Does Open Access enhance plagiarism? top

No, when it concerns results of a research work. The repositories usually follow control mechanisms for intellectual property rights of the submitted documents. Helios Repository follows certification mechanisms for controlling the documents access and distribution. If for any reason the researcher concerns about plagiarism it is recommended to place restrictions on the access. For more information, please contact Helios Support Team.

How can I be kept informed about the movements in Open Access? top

The following websites include information about Open Access movements:

I have already got my material on my web-site - so I don't need to post it in a repository top

Institutional repositories are based on a standard system from the Open Archives Initiative (OAI). Because the metadata - effectively the catalogue description - in OAI-compliant repositories is "harvested" by OAI search services, all such repositories can be searched through a single point. Since the only results of such a search come from academic repositories, an eprint is far easier to find and far more prominent than if it were accessed through an individual's non-OAI website. Even a normal Google or Google Scholar search favours OAI-repository material and normally ranks it higher than an individual's own website.
More than this, repositories are working to help material be preserved in the longer term. This brings the advantage that when academics move on, or their personal website changes, their eprints in a repository - and the links - will remain stable, readable and accessible.

About Helios Repository

What is Helios Repository? top

Helios repository is an organized infrastructure of digital content, based on the internet, for the collection, management, preservation and distribution of documents, where the research output of the National Hellenic Research Foundation (NHRF) is collected in digital form.
Helios offers free access to scientific and research material from the National Hellenic Research Foundation. Scientific results, publications in national and international journals, research work, conference proceedings, books, training material, sound and image files are available in a fully organized environment, compatible to international standards. The first stage of Helios' development involves the compilation of all the material provided by the researchers working at the NHRF. New scientific material is continuously being added, while the availability of full text publications is being updated while copyright issues are being resolved.

Why is it named "Helios"? top

The Helios [sun in Greek] is the emblem of the National Hellenic Research Foundation. It concerns an engraved work of Tassos and is inspired by the depiction of the sun on a tetradrachm or didrachm of Rhodes (250-190 BC).

What is the further objective of Helios Repository? top

The further objective of Helios Repository is the systematic collection, management and distribution of the scientific output of the NHRF (scientific articles, books, conference reports, etc.) in a way which is friendly to the academic, scientific community of the country but also to the general public. Moreover, the repository is aiming at the long-term preservation of the scientific output of the NHRF.

What is the contribution of Helios in the research community of the NHRF? top

  • Electronic access to a large volume of digital content increasing the visibility of the scientific output of NHRF.
  • Homogeneous search and retrieval of R&T content by adopting international standards.
  • Promotion of the scientific output through multiple search engines on the Internet (multiplier benefit).
  • Interoperability and increase in communication between research community members.
  • Security, maintenance and availability of the scientific content on a long-term basis.
  • Added value services such as the direct extraction of publication usage and statistical data (traffic of papers, readability, retrieval and citation rates), generation of dynamic publication lists for personal home page or for the institutional home page. automatic data transfer to other repositories and web content distributors.
  • International promotion of Greek scientific publications.

How is Helios organized? top

Helios repository is organized by communities. A community may be a Research Institute or an administration unit or a research grant team. Within communities are "collections" which contain "items"

What are the communities of Helios? top

The communities of Helios are based on the administrative structure and scientific activities of the NHRF. More precisely, they are derived from:

  • National Documentation Centre
  • Institute of Biology, Medicinal Chemistry and Biotechnology
  • Institute of Historical Research
  • Theoretical and Physical Chemistry Institute
  • Educational Events
  • Director of the National Hellenic Research Foundation

Which platform does Helios utilize? top

Helios utilizes "DSpace", an open-source groundbreaking digital library system developed by MIT (Massachussetis Institute of Technology) and Hewlett-Packard. DSpace is s software platform designed to manage a wide variety of digital content implementing the OAI protocol (Open Access Initiative). It captures, stores, indexes and preserves the intellectual output of the organization's research, making it available for others to access.

Is access to Helios free? top

The access to the metadata is free to all users. The access to the full text depends on a variety of factors such as intellectual property rights, publisher's embargo, community policy, author's decision etc.

Which factors affect access to Helios? top

The access is influenced mainly by intellectual property rights covering each publication submitted to Helios. Most of the times, it concerns a post-print, subject to relevant restrictions and commitments by the publisher. The author/creator plays an equally significant role in the access, since the type of the access (free or restricted) is determined by him/herself in accordance with the policy of the relevant Helios community.
A large percentage of full text documents are freely available in Helios and the availability is being updated while copyright and other issues are being resolved.

What document types are included in Helios? top

  • Articles of scientific journals and magazines
  • Conferences/Symposiums, Minutes of meetings, Articles, Abstracts, Posters
  • Monographs
  • Books
  • Book chapters
  • Patents
  • Doctoral theses
  • Training material
  • Book presentations-book critiques
  • Prefaces
  • Paper texts
  • Lectures
  • Technical reports
  • Datasets
  • Images
  • etc.

For more information on the document types, please contact Helios Support Team.

Why self-archiving in Helios is recommended to a researcher/scientist? top

NHRF researchers are encouraged to self-archiving in Helios in order to maximize the visibility and accessibility of one's research, and hence the usage and impact of one's work. Merely publishing it provides minimal impact: Also self-archiving it provides maximal impact.

What is the metadata scheme of Helios Repository? top

The metadata scheme of Helios Repository is the Dublin Core standard.

Why Dublin Core? top

The Dublin Core metadata element scheme is a standard for cross-domain information resource description. It provides a simple and standardized set of conventions for describing things online in ways that make them easier to find. Dublin Core is widely used to describe digital materials such as video, sound, image, text, and composite media like web pages. Implementations of Dublin Core typically make use of XML and are Resource Description Framework based. Dublin Core is defined by ISO in 2003 ISO Standard 15836, and NISO Standard Z39.85-2007.

Who can access Helios Repository? top

The access to Helios Repository is free through the website http://helios-eie.ekt.gr. All users can freely access the metadata. The availability of full text documents is being updated while copyright issues are being resolved.

Frequently Asked Questions about Copyright

Which regulations apply to intellectual property protection? top

Basic copyright legislation is to be found in Law 2121/1993 and subsequent amendments thereof, especially article 81, Law 3057/2002, which harmonized Greek legislation with the community directive 2001/29/EC, as well as articles 1, 2 and 4, Law 3524/2007.
According to the national legislation "work means any original language, artwork or scientific intellectual creation, expressed in any form" (article 2&1, Law 2121/1993). Greek legislation accepts the principle that the creator of a work is the predecessor in title of the economic and moral rights thereon (article 6&1, Law 2121/1993). The economic right allows commercial exploitation of the work by the creator. The powers composing the economic right correspond to the work's basic modes of exploitation. The law refers to the following powers in the form of example: the right to allow or prohibit recording and reproduction of their works, translation, adaptation, adjustment or any other modifications, distribution of the original or copies thereof, leasing and public borrowing, public performance, broadcasting, presentation to the public, as well as the import of copies produced abroad without permission, or, provided that the import comes from any country outside the European Community, if the right of importing to Greece had been contractually retained by the creator (article 3, Law 2121/1993, and (amendment) article 81&1, Law 3057/2002). The moral right protects the personal connection between the creator and his/her work and consists of the powers referred to as examples in article 4, Law 2121/1993. Such powers are: the power to claim authorship, the power to protect the integrity of the work, the power of access and the power to withdraw.
For example, the copyright protection law covers several kinds of original work including musical compositions, plays, works of plastic arts, audiovisual works, scientific works, recordings, films, data bases, software programs.

How can protection of copyright be obtained? top

  1. Ask the publisher to modify the copyright license agreement to reserve the right to self archiving your work on yours Institutional Repository. There are several web sites offering relevant information e.g. http://copyrighttoolbox.surf.nl/copyrighttoolbox/ http://www.arl.org/sparc/author/

What are the benefits to authors reserving the self archiving right? top

Most authors/creators are not aware that granting intellectual rights to a publisher, results to a permission request for any possible use including even educational purposes. In such a case posting of papers in repositories or downloading papers to websites may raise several copyright infringements.
Author reserving the self archiving rights can benefit the following:

  • Potential use of the material for educational & research purposes
  • Potential submission into repositories and other means for wider promotion of the papers
  • Increase of the availability of scientific results
  • Increase the citation rates

Which is the current publication status? top

In general, each author/creator, as copyright holder, reserves the right to post his/her paper to a repository in a variety of versions depending on the policy of each publisher.
Recently several publishers - Elsevier, Springer, American Institute of Physics, American Physical Society, have adopted "repository-friendly" policies allowing preprints and post-prints self-archiving. Together with those publishers that have always allowed authors to deposit their work on-line, such moves have meant that the standard database of publisher's policies (SHERPA/RoMEO list) now shows that 64% allow post-print archiving - a figure which rises to over 90% when considered by the number of journals, rather than by publishers. . In general, authors/creators are advised to negotiate with publishers in order to reserve the self archiving right on the author's Institutional Repository. However, for publishers who do not allow self-archiving and prevent the relevant publishing activities we recommend the "Harnad-Oppenheim solution"

Which licenses apply to Open Access content? top

The Creative Commons (six licenses), which allow free exchange of cultural documents, are the most popular existing licenses for Open Access content. The adopted Creative Commons licenses by the Greek users are available at the webpage: http://www.openaccess.gr./openaccess/copyrights.dot. and in Helios WebPages. More information on Creative Commons is available on http://www.creativecommons.org/.

Whose owns the copyright? top

The Greek legislation acknowledges that the creator is in title the copyright holder on his/her work. If there is not a copyright transfer agreement in writing, the creator remains the copyright holder. Works of cooperation are the works resulting from the cooperation of two or more creators when the contribution of each one of them may not be separated from the contribution of any other creator. In this case you have to ensure the consent of the other author(s)/creator(s) in order to submit the work to the Helios repository on their behalf. If the contribution of each creator to a certain work is separable (collective works and composite works), then each part of the work is protected separately by the law and each creator holds the copyright on his/her own work, unless otherwise agreed. It is clear that a work may contain material which copyright does not belong to the creator of the work but to another person (e.g. a scientific article contains photographs taken by third parties). Please make sure that you have the consent of the owner of the copyright to deposit documents using third party's work.

Which regulations apply to intellectual property rights on works which are not classified as works of "written language"? top

You can find below some general guidelines concerning copyright on works which are not classified as works of written language: Regarding photographs, the photographer is the predecessor in title of copyright thereon. However, pay attention to the fact that a special permit from the Ministry of Culture has to be obtained in order to take and distribute photographs representing ancient monuments of the cultural inheritance. As for audiovisual works, the director is considered predecessor in title of copyright thereon.
Performers or actors, producers of photographic and audiovisual works, radio and television organizations and publishers retain related rights on the works. Related rights protect those who assist the creators in presenting their intellectual works to the public.

Which approval steps should be followed for copyright-protected material? top

If you haven't signed a copyright transfer agreement with a publisher, then, according to the Greek law, you are the owner of the copyright on your work. Recently, publishers usually ask the authors to sign some kind of copyright transfer, or a relevant agreement, before they proceed with the publication of their works. Such agreements differ from one publisher to the other. Before posting your work to the Helios repository, please check whether posting f a copy of your work to an institutional repository is allowed by your publisher. Such posting is usually referred to as self-archiving. The general trend is publishers to allow self-archiving of scientific articles. If you wish to post a book, please check your publishing agreement to find out whether book's self-archiving is allowed. If there is no such term, you should contact your publisher in order to request permission. In order to make sure that a scientific work may be submitted to the repository, please act as follows:


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